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Give A Dog (or a Cat) A Bone

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There is much debate in the media about the potential dangers of feeding bones to dogs and cats, and also of the potential risks of food poisoning such as salmonella infection that the feeding of raw meat may carry. However, simply by correct feeding, you can help your dog / cat create the healthiest gastric environment for them to eliminate these potential dangers.

The gastric acidity of the stomach of a dog or cat eating a diet predominantly made up of raw meat is very acidic, with a pH of 2 or lower. This highly acidic environment is favourable to the breakdown of raw meats, and raw bones, into soft digestible material. This low pH also is also highly effective at killing bacteria, particularly potentially pathogenic bacteria like salmonella spp, clostridia, campylobacter and E Coli.

For over 40 million years, the natural ‘wild’ diet of Cats and dogs has evolved a gastric environment that favours the breakdown of raw meats, raw bones and a pH that kills potentially harmful bacteria consistent with the requirements of carnivores, and in particular, the scavenging nature of dogs, so it is only logical that this is what they will thrive on.

Also matched to this highly carnivorous predominantly raw diet  is a very effective digestive process, which occurs in their relatively short gastrointestinal tract. Dogs and cats have a significantly shorter GI tract when compared to non meat eating (herbivorous) animals, whereas humans have an intermediate length GI tract. The relative length of the gut reflects the required nature of the diet, and how efficiently or slowly the food is broken down and absorbed. Fresh raw meat is easily digested and absorbed compared to vegetable matter, and as such, carnivores have a short gut, and rapid gut transit time of as little as 8 -12 hrs, whereas plant and vegetable material in a herbivore’s gut can take 3 – 5 days, significantly longer.

Unfortunately many modern processed pet foods have adapted to the financial constraint of the cost of meat protein by significantly increasing the carbohydrate component of dog and cat foods, using instead, corn, wheat, rice, potato and other forms of carbohydrate. These are often the major ingredient in many pet foods. Secondly, many processed pet foods also substitute meat proteins with plant based proteins that are much cheaper. Using ingredients like Soya bean and lupins which are cheap sources of protein that will increase the overall protein % on the label, but without the associated increase in cost. The problem with this type of substitution is that it directly impacts on the digestive environment of the dog or cat.

In dogs and cats that eat these diets with high carbohydrate, high plant protein and lower meat protein, we find that the acidity level of the stomach begins to alter (gastric acidity relates to meat protein), and the stomach becomes progressively more alkaline, for example pH 4 and above. In this less acidic environment, several key issues arise;

  • With the altered  pH, gastric digestion and emptying slows down.
  • With the altered pH, food bacteria and contaminants are not destroyed as effectively.
  • With the altered pH, raw bones and bone material is not softened and broken down effectively because digestive enzymes have lost function.

This would become apparent when a dog that is fed a highly processed diet is offered a raw bone, or a meal of raw meat. Because the stomach acidity is directly dictated by the meat protein content of the diet, these dogs already have a less acidic stomach, which is not able to soften and breakdown raw bone material, nor is the stomach pH able to cope with a load of bacteria. The result can be a sudden ‘rejection’ of the bone or meat, in the form of vomiting, or it can take the form of a bout of acute gastroenteritis, from an overgrowth of bacteria, or it may even result in a bone obstruction in the stomach. This appears to be the main problem that you read about in the media, people feed their dog dry kibble for a long period and then realising that the dog may need something more, they give them a large bone which they may not be able to digest properly.


In addition, with the delayed gastric emptying effect, any bacteria that do survive are also able to grow up into much larger numbers, and this effect is continued in the large bowel, with further fermentation of the plant fibre, and a delay in overall gut transit time. This can also result in constipation from excessive water reabsorption, or in loose stools from the over production of short chain fatty acids in the colon.

The problem is that it can take around 7-10 days of feeding a meat based diet for the gastric acidity levels to drop down to the natural pH 2 level, so it is not possible for the dog or cat’s body to quickly accommodate to such diet changes.

From this we can base a few fundamental feeding tips :

  • If you intend to feed fresh meat or a raw food diet, you should make this change gradually over 7-10 days and introduce bones after this time having allowed the dog or cat’s gastric acidity to normalise.
  • Including some fresh meat every day as part of your overall diet plan will make sure the gastric pH remains at around pH 2
  • Feeding a raw food diet will actually protect your dog or cat from bacterial contamination and food poisoning, and greatly reduce the chance of an obstruction from eating raw bones. It is a fact that dogs that eat processed foods are even more likely to shed salmonella bacteria in their faeces than are dogs that eat raw food.
  • Dogs and cats benefit from the calcium and phosphorus in bones.
  • You may need to teach your dog or cat to eat some types of bones, for instance if  they always eat their food in a big hurry, they may not crunch a small bone but instead try to swallow it whole. This happened with one of my dogs, she gulped down a pork rib bone. She was perfectly fine and digested it but by giving her small chicken wings that were cut in pieces, slowly she learned to crunch them before swallowing. Now she crunches up pork rib bones too and gnaws and crunches small lamb leg bones.
  • Note: Beef bones are too hard for dogs to eat and can break or chip their teeth, unless your dog has learned to just gnaw on these bones and eat the marrow (as in the picture above) remember ‘marrow’ contains a significant number of extra calories. Chicken, Pork and Lamb bones are generally better for your dog to eat.
  • For Cats, typically, chicken wings and necks are best or if you prefer you can crush them first so that they get all the minerals from the bones without any large pieces. Unfortunately, they won’t have the fun of gnawing on a bone though. If your cat has a sensitive stomach ensure that they are thoroughly acclimatised to a raw meal before giving bones with a high marrow content as occasionally the ‘marrow’ in bones may cause diarrhea due to its fat content.
  • Keep your dog or cat under observation and monitor their progress when they are eating bones, especially in a household where there are multiple animals.
  • Give only appropriate sized bones to your pet.

In summary, make sure that your dog or cat’s everyday eating habits have evolved sufficiently to enable them to benefit from the addition of suitable raw bones in their diet. Then like their ancestors, hopefully they may thrive with a lot less of the (what has become normal) upsetting medical complaints.


By  Zoe Vanderbilt   BSc



zuma-adminGive A Dog (or a Cat) A Bone

Annual Dog and Cat Vaccinations: Find Out About The Dangers!


The majority of people reading this will probably have taken their dog or cat for his or her annual vaccinations recently. Every responsible pet owner wants to protect their pet from deadly diseases of course, but vaccinating annually could actually be doing more harm than good by compromising your dogs immune system, and leaving them open to further diseases.


Research from the World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) recommends no more often than every three years and points to vaccines lasting at least seven years and sometimes life.

Yet we often vaccinate yearly or vaccinate for diseases that are rare. Health problems such as Arthritis, Allergies (both food and skin), Cancers, Thyroid Dysfunction, Behavioural Problems and Immune System Breakdowns, have all been laid at the doorstep of the vaccines that are supposed to protect our pets.

Because annual boosters of the core vaccines are not necessarily needed, over-vaccination can occur which can compromise your pet’s immune system. Puppies and kittens should be vaccinated at the appropriate time to protect them and boosters repeated at one year old. But after that you have the choice of vaccinating every three or four years (BVA), or having Titer tests done instead to check your dog or cat’s immunity.

Titier testing is a blood test that can assess whether a given animals humoral immune response has fallen below adequate immune memory. In the event of this occurring, an appropriate vaccine booster can be administered.

Possible Medical Problems Caused By Vaccines

Research papers published by eminent scientists and leading immunologists show that diseases can be caused by vaccines. However it is unlikely that your Vet will associate vaccine reaction, to illnesses that may appear later on, such as:

Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia

Cancers (often initiated at the site of the injection)


Genetic defects

Thyroid disease


Addisons disease






In fact the WSAVA give this advice also endorsed in the UK by BSAVA (British Small Animal Veterinary Association) which specifically says that:

“Vaccines should not be given needlessly. Core vaccines should not be given any more frequently than every three years after the 12 month booster injection following the puppy/kitten series, because the duration of immunity (DOI) is many years and may be up to the lifetime of the pet”.

The VGG has defined non-core vaccines as those that are required by only those animals whose geographical location, local environment or lifestyle places them at risk of contracting specific infections. The VGG has also classified some vaccines as not recommended (where there is insufficient scientific evidence to justify their use) and has not considered a number of minority products which have restricted geographical availability or application”.

This information is publicly available and easily found, why not talk it over with your Vet when you next take your dog or cat for a health check-up!

Don’t forget this advice from the BSAVA is for your Dogs and Cats too.


By Zoe Vanderbilt    B.Sc


zuma-adminAnnual Dog and Cat Vaccinations: Find Out About The Dangers!

Can Your Dog See That New Red Ball?

Siberian Husky Puppy

Can Your Dog See That New Red Ball?

It is a common belief that dogs are colourblind, in the sense that they see the world only in black, white and shades of grey. It is true that the range of colour a dog sees is much more limited and less intense than the colours that we humans see, they can still see colours though, but mainly blues and yellows and varying shades of grey.

The eyes of both people and dogs contain special light catching cells called ‘cones’ that respond to colour. Dogs have fewer cones than humans which suggests that their colour vision won’t be as rich or intense as ours. However, the trick to seeing colour is not just having cones, but having several different types of cones, each tuned to different wavelengths of light. Humans have three different kinds of cones for colour detecting and the combined activity of these gives humans their full range of colour vision whereas dogs have only two types.

This is how the spectrum appears to dogs as opposed to people:


Dogs do not rely only on colour information to discriminate between objects. They also analyse the brightness or darkness and density to pinpoint an object. However, due to a dog’s extreme farsightedness putting objects that are near to them, slightly out of focus, colour vision is still very useful to them. From my own observations, my dog can spot a motionless squirrel a few meters away or several hundred meters away, by using their unique combination of powerful senses.

When it comes to night vision though, the tables are definitely turned! A dog’s night or dim-light vision is thought to be FIVE times better than humans! The dog’s larger pupil lets in more light and the centre of the retina has more of the light sensitive cells (rods), which work better in dim light than the colour detecting cones. You have seen how a dog’s eyes glow at night when you shine a light at them, this is because of the mirror like structure called the ‘tapetum’ which gives the dog a big advantage. It reflects light, and effectively gives the retina a second chance to register any light that has entered the eye.

Remember, when you throw that red ball on the green grass for them, colour-wise, it won’t stand out as well for them as it does for you, but your dog will be able to use their other amazing senses to help them find it anyway!

By Zoe Vanderbilt  B.Sc


zuma-adminCan Your Dog See That New Red Ball?